Richard We, lion-heart, was Ruler of Britain from 1189 to 1199. Though he didn’t make a thorough effect on musical development he has already established a direct effect on the annals of music. Decidedly a poet and a composer he was an associate of the troubadour family members. His grandfather, Guillaume IX, dad of Eleanor of Acquitaine, was among the first troubadour poets, if not really the initial. Richard had written two poems which survive and could well be the initial surviving types of rotrouenge — poems having a certain rhyme structure and a refrain. (The schema and lifestyle of such an application can be contested.) Both poems, “Dalfin, je’us voill deresnier,” and “Ju nus hons pris ne dira sa raison,” cope with the chastisement from the Dauphin of Auvergne for not really arriving at Richard’s help, and a issue about his period being a prisoner in Austria.